Skip to Content Skip to menu Skip to links

Glossary


Joint and several liability
A legal doctrime that makes each of the parties who are responsible for an injury, liable for all the damages awarded in a lawsuit if the other parties responsible cannot pay.
Joint tenancy
A form of legal co-ownership of property (also known as survivorship). At the death of one co-owner, the surviding co-owner becomes sole owner of the property. Tenancy by the entirety is a special form of joint tenancy between a husband and wife.
Judge
An elected or appointed public official with authority to hear and decide cases in a court of law. A judge Pro Tem is a temporary judge.
Judgment
The first disposition of a lawsuit. Default judgment is a judgment rendered because of the defendant’s failure to answer or appear. Summary Judgment is a judgment given on the basis of pleadings, affidavits, and exhibits presented for the record without any need for a trial. It is used when there is no dispute as to the facts of the case and one party is entitled to a judgment as a matter of law. Consent judgment occurs when the provisions and terms of the judgment are agreed on by the parties and submitted to the court for its sanction and approval.
Judgment and sentence
The official document of a judge’s disposition of a case sentencing a defendant to DOC or jail custody.
Judicial Review
The authority of a court to review the official actions of other branches of government. Also, the authority to declare unconstitutional the actions of other branches.
Jurat
Certificate of officer or person whom writing was sworn before. In common term is employed to designate certificate of competent administering office that writing was sworn to by person who signed it.
Jurisdiction
1. The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. 2. The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
Jurisprudence
The study of law and the structure of the legal system.
Juror disqualified
Juror excused from a trial.
Jury
Persons selected according to law and sworn to inquire into and declare a verdict on matters of fact. A petit jury is an ordinary or trial jury, composed of six to 12 persons, which hears either civil or criminal cases.
Jury Commissioner
The court officer responsible for choosing the panel of persons to serve as potential jurors for a particular court term.
Jury polled
Each individual juror is asked to affirm his or her verdict in open court at the conclusion of a trial.
Jury selection list
A panel from which jurors, who will hear the case, are drawn.
Jury trial
A trial in which the jury judges the facts and the judge rules on the law.
Justiciable
Issues and claims capable of being properly examined in court.
Juvenile
A child under 18 years of age.